Database Fundamentals #31: Unique Constraints from the GUI

Database Fundamentals, SQL Server
In the last few Fundamentals posts you were introduced to a couple of ways to limit and control the data stored in the tables in your database. A primary key won’t allow a duplicate value. A foreign key won’t allow a value to be added that doesn’t already exist in the parent table and it will prevent data from being deleted. These are types of constraints on data in your database. There are a bunch of other ways to constrain the data in an effort to ensure that the data stored is exactly what the business needs. The next few Fundamentals posts will cover several methods of limiting data. Unique Constraints to Stop Duplicates When the concept of the primary key was introduced earlier in the series, two different types…
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Azure Data Studio Intellisense

SQL Server
I recently saw a question about the Azure Data Studio Intellisense: "Why won't intellisense in Azure Data Studio work with different schemas?" Immediately I thought, "Wait, it does." But, testing is your buddy. Azure Data Studio Intellisense Azure Data Studio Intellisense is on by default. Also, I like it a little better than the one in SSMS because it will start trying to help you, as you type (like a 3rd party software I can't live without). However, they're partly right. Let's say I want 'Person.Address' so I start typing like this: It doesn't know that I have a table named 'Person.Address'. It's trying to be helpful. You can even see how it's doing a form of wild card search, suggesting that maybe 'db_accessadmin' is what I want since it…
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Extended Events Session Properties

SQL Server
I like Extended Events and I regularly use the Session Properties window to create and explore sessions. I'm in the window all the time, noting it's quirks & odd behaviors, even as it helps me get stuff done. However, found a new one. Let me tell you about just a few of them. Session Properties Window When you open the Extended Events session properties window for an existing session, in SSMS 18.1, it should look something like this: See the problem? Well, that is the problem. Here, look after I resize it: There it is. At the bottom. By default, the window isn't sized correctly so you see everything. In fact, I'm in the habit of maximizing the window, just because it makes it easier to work with. However, I…
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SQL Server, PostgreSQL and the Future

PostgreSQL, SQL Server
This is just a quick note to talk about the future, mine, yours and this blog. First, I'm not abandoning SQL Server. I'm actively working on a revision of the query performance tuning book (something I should be working on instead of writing this post). SQL Server is my first, and best, database love. We're not going anywhere, SQL Server and I. You can expect more posts on SQL Server, query tuning, execution plans, DevOps, community, #sqlfamily, and everything I've blogged about for the last, ooh, 14 years next month. Second, our family is growing. Just like when a family brings home a new baby, well, I'm adding another database. It doesn't mean I don't love my first database. I still do. We're just going to ALSO be talking about…
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Query Your Statistics: dm_db_stats_properties

SQL Server
We've always been able to look at statistics with DBCC SHOW_STATISTICS. You can even tell SHOW_STATISTICS to only give you the properties, STAT_HEADER, or histogram, HISTOGRAM. However, it's always come back in a format that you can't easily consume in T-SQL. From SQL Server 2012 to everything else, you can simply query sys.dm_db_stats_properties to get that same header information, but in a consumable fashion. dm_db_stats_properties You can pretty easily query the function dm_db_stats_properties: SELECT ddsp.object_id, ddsp.stats_id, ddsp.last_updated, ddsp.rows, ddsp.rows_sampled, ddsp.steps, ddsp.unfiltered_rows, ddsp.modification_counter, ddsp.persisted_sample_percent FROM sys.dm_db_stats_properties(OBJECT_ID('Production.Location'), 1) AS ddsp; You just have to pass in the object_id value and the stats_id value and you're off to the races. I can hear you. Why? So we can do things like this. What if I want to look at statistics that have fewer…
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Two Clustered Indexes?

SQL Server
Everyone knows that you only get a single clustered index, right? Wouldn't it be great though if you could have two clustered indexes? Well, you can. Sort of. Let's talk about it. Two Clustered Indexes First I'm going to create a table: DROP TABLE IF EXISTS dbo.od; GO SELECT pod.PurchaseOrderID, pod.PurchaseOrderDetailID, pod.DueDate, pod.OrderQty, pod.ProductID, pod.UnitPrice, pod.LineTotal, pod.ReceivedQty, pod.RejectedQty, pod.StockedQty, pod.ModifiedDate INTO dbo.od FROM Purchasing.PurchaseOrderDetail AS pod; With that in place, let's start with a clustered index: CREATE CLUSTERED INDEX TestCIndex ON od (ProductID); And, a query to test with: SELECT od.PurchaseOrderID, od.PurchaseOrderDetailID, od.DueDate, od.OrderQty, od.ProductID, od.UnitPrice, od.LineTotal, od.ReceivedQty, od.RejectedQty, od.StockedQty, od.ModifiedDate FROM dbo.od WHERE od.ProductID BETWEEN 500 AND 510 ORDER BY od.ProductID; This results in the following execution plan: OK. Well done, Grant. That's how a clustered index works. The…
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Identifying Recompile Causes

SQL Server
Strictly speaking, a recompile isn't really a performance tuning problem. In fact, a lot of time, recompiles are desired because they reflect changes in statistics which are likely to need a new plan. However, you can get really excessive levels of recompiles because of a variety of different issues. So, identifying the causes can be a pain. Here's one way to get it done. Extended Events for Recompile Causes You knew I was going there. Seriously though, we know that, since SQL Server 2005, all recompiles are at the statement level (unless you call for a recompile of a procedure or create that proc with a RECOMPILE hint). So, capturing the recompiles and getting grotty on the details means capturing statements. Understand that this can be expensive, especially in terms…
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Get SQL Server 2022 Now: It’s Called Azure

Azure, SQL Server
If you're like me, your palms went into a cold sweat to get your grubby fingers on the bits for SQL Server 2022 a few nanoseconds after you heard the announcement. Well, you might be waiting a while. As will I. However, I really do want to start experimenting with some of the functionality right now. If you do to, then join me at Azure SQL Database. Azure SQL Database as a Preview for SQL Server 2022 Yeah, I know it's not the same. I get it. You have a need to run this stuff on big iron, not virtual, and certainly not in the cloud. Still, you want to learn, right? Tons of the new functionality is either already in Azure or incorporates Azure functionality. You can get started…
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Filtering Extended Events Using Actions

SQL Server, You Can't Do That In Profiler
Did you know, you can use Actions to Filter Extended Events? Well, you can. Filtering is one of the greatest ways in which Extended Events differentiates itself from other mechanisms of gathering information about the behavior of SQL Server. You can put Actions to work in your filtering. Best of all, the Actions don't have to be collected in order to put them to work filtering your Extend Events. Using Actions To Filter Extended Events Actions, also called Global Fields, are additional bits of data that you can add to a given Event when you're setting up an Extended Events Session. They are programmatic additions to the Event, as described here. Think of them sort of like triggers. In practice, adding an Action, database_name, to an Event, like the rpc_completed…
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Permissions Needed To Force Plans in Query Store

SQL Server
I was recently asked what permissions were needed to force plans in query store. I'm sure I knew at one point, but at the moment I was asked, I couldn't remember to save my life. So, I went and looked it up. In the interest of sharing, especially for the poor person who I left hanging, here's what I found. Permissions in Query Store Look through the blog, you'll find I'm pretty enamored with Query Store. I even contributed to a book on the topic (a little, it was almost all Tracy's work on that book, I just helped out). I haven't addressed security and Query Store. You do need to think about security in Query Store. For example, should you give read access to Query Store to your dev…
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